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Nouns

A noun is any sort of person, place, or thing, and comes in two varieties: common and proper.


Common Nouns

Common nouns are generic words that identify members of a class of people, places, or things. In Romániço, all common nouns end in -o:

mago wizard
provincio shire
anelo ring

The plural adds -s:

magos wizards
provincios shires
anelos rings

Words that are not already nouns can be made into one simply by adding -o to the root:

maligno (from maligna “malignant”) evil person or thing
incanto (from incanter “bewitch”) incantation
éxtero (from exter “outside of”) outsider

The -o of Romániço nouns should not be confused with the masculine -o of Spanish and Italian; every noun in Romániço, whether it’s male, female, neuter, or epicene, ends in -o. So to specify that a noun is male or female, one can add -içh- or -is- to the root:

germano sibling
germaniçho brother
germaniso sister
pulo chicken
puliçho rooster
puliso hen

Note that -içh- and -is- should only be used to avoid potential confusion. When speaking about Senioros Smith (“Mr. and Mrs. Smith”), for example, one might need to distinguish between Senioriçho Smith (“Mr. Smith”) and Senioriso Smith (“Mrs. Smith”), but not when addressing either one of them directly (both are Senioro Smith).


Proper Nouns

Proper nouns name a particular person, place, or thing, and as such have no generic ending; they are treated as immutable “foreign” loanwords, pronounced as closely as one can get to the original within the limits of the Romániço phonetic system. Those originally written in the Roman alphabet (including Latin renderings of Greek, Biblical, and other names) are transcribed as-is apart from stress marks; those written in other alphabets are transcribed phonetically. Such words include names of individual people as well as words that are exclusively national or local:

Gaius Iulius Caesar GÁIVS·IV́LIVS·CAESAR
Sócrates SÓCRATÉS / Σωκράτης
Iesus IÉSV́S / ישוע
María MARꟾA / מִרְיָם
Shakespeare Shakespeare
Chrushçhóv Хрущёв
Wałęsa (aut Walesa) Wałęsa
dollar, dollars dollar, dollars
pound, pounds pound, pounds
samurái, samuráis samurai / 侍
Beijíng Běijīng / 北京
Lisboa Lisboa
New-York New York
München (aut Munchen) München
Moscvá Москва

Note that if the plural of a foreign word is generally known, it should be used as the plural in Romániço, too (eg., dollars). If it is not, one should simply add s to the word, or -os (including the hyphen) where necessary.

Western forenames can be dealt with in one of two ways. The first (and easier) way is to transcribe them as-is, just like any other name. The second is to Latinize them, which would greatly simplify learning Western names by circumventing their endless national permutations:

Vilhelmus* William, Wilhelm, Guillermo, etc.
Adolphus Adolf, Adolph, Adolfo, etc.
Laurentius Laurence, Lawrence, Lorenzo, etc.
Georgius George, Jorge, etc.
*Proper names transcribed Gu- in Romance should be transribed V- in Romániço: Vido, Valtharius, Varinharius.

One could, if one were so inclined, go a step further and completely Romanicize Latinizable names (including the names of places) by doing the following:

However one renders names, they can all come in three forms: short, familiar diminutive, and affectionate diminutive. The first is produced by simple truncation, when possible; the second by adding -i to a short form; the third by adding -uci- to any form:

Vilhelmus (or Vilhelmo) William
Vil Will
Vili Willie
Vilucio Willikins

The names of countries, oceans, and international rivers and mountain ranges preserve their Latin (or Latinized) form, but conform to Romániço’s orthography and have, where necessary, been altered for the sake of regularity:

África Africa
América America
Asia Asia
Europa Europe
Çhinia China
Costa-Rica Costa Rica
Peruvia Peru
Rusia Russia
Usona* The United States
Mediteráneo The Mediterranean Sea
Pacífico The Pacific Ocean
Balcanos The Balkan Mountains
*From a 19th-century acronym for “United States of North America”

In many languages, most “Old World” country names are derived from the name of their dominant ethnic group, as England is from the English and Russia from the ancient Rus’; most “New World” peoples derive their name from the name of their country, as Canadians do from Canada.

While this is true in Romániço as well (Anglia “England”, is named after the ancient Anglos, Canadanos “Canadians” after Cánada), modern peoples are named not after the ethnic tribe from which they descended, but the country of which they are citizens. A person legally living in England, then, is an Angliano, whether that person is ethnically Angla or not; any citizen of Great Britain is a Britaniano, even though the ancient Britanos that gave Britain its name are no more.

A shorthand for the names of languages can be formed by adding -enso to the name of a country, for example Çhinienso “Chinese”, which might more specifically be Mandarinenso, Cuantonghenso, or many others. Usonenso refers to American English. Cumbrienso, however, or “the language of Wales”, is not Welsh (Cumbrenso), but English; for that reason, it’s generally more accurate to name languages not after the country they’re spoken in, but the people who first spoke them (Anglenso “English”; Anglienso “English as spoken in England”).