Common nouns are generic words that identify members of a class of people, places, or things. In Romániço, all common nouns end in -o:
The plural adds -s:
Words that are not already nouns can be made into one simply by adding -o to the root:
|maligno (from maligna “malignant”)||evil person or thing|
|incanto (from incanter “bewitch”)||incantation|
|éxtero (from exter “outside of”)||outsider|
The -o of Romániço nouns should not be confused with the masculine -o of Spanish and Italian; every noun in Romániço, whether it’s male, female, neuter, or epicene, ends in -o. So to specify that a noun is male or female, one can add -as- or -is- to the root:
Note that -as- and -is- should only be used to avoid potential confusion. When speaking about Senioros Smith (“Mr. and Mrs. Smith”), for example, one might need to distinguish between Senioraso Smith (“Mr. Smith”) and Senioriso Smith (“Mrs. Smith”), but not when addressing either one of them directly (both are Senioro Smith).
Proper Nouns and Foreign Words
Proper nouns name a particular person, place, or thing, and as such have no generic ending; they are treated as immutable “foreign” loanwords, pronounced as closely as one can get to the original within the limits of the Romániço phonetic system. Those originally written in the Roman alphabet (including Latin renderings of Greek, Biblical, and other names) are transcribed as-is; those written in other alphabets are transcribed phonetically. Such words include names of individual people as well as words that are exclusively national or local:
|Wałęsa (aut Walesa)||Wałęsa|
|Sheol||Sheol / שְׁאוֹל|
|samurái||samurai / 侍|
|Beijíng||Běijīng / 北京|
|New York||New York|
|München (aut Munchen)||München|
One should use the foreign plural form, too, if such exists and is known: una fida'i, dua fida'iyin, una pound, dua pounds. If neither is the case, one can pluralize the word’s adjectives, if any and where necessary, or add -(o)s (including the hyphen): dua fida'i, dua pound, las fida'i, las pound, fida'i-s, pound-os.
When a personal name is known to be a national variation of an internationally common name (e.g., John, Jean, Giovanni, Juan, Hans, and the many other descendants of Biblical Yohanan), one can use the name as-is, or one can use its Latin or Latinized form along the following guidelines:
- For actual Greco-Roman names, use the nominative forms. Vocalic v is written u, gv and qv as gu and qu; vowels are pronounced as in Romániço, the digraphs ae as [aj], ch as [k], ph as [f], th as [θ or tʰ], but otherwise pronunciation is classical:
Georgius [ge-ˈor-gi-us] Laurentius [law-ˈren-ti-us] Caesar [ˈkaj-sar] Scipio [ˈski-pi-o] Philippus [fi-ˈlip-pus] Iulius [ˈju-li-us] Lucas [ˈlu-kas] Socrates [ˈso-kra-tes] Venus [ˈwe-nus]
- If the name is a Hebrew one from the Bible, use the indeclinable form — that is, given the choice between Abraham and Abrahamus, go with Abraham. Pronunciation is Latin, but the letters ae (as in Israel) are pronounced separately ('is-ra-el):
Raphael ['ra-fa-el] Michael ['mi-ka-el] Moses [ˈmo-ses] Salomon [ˈsa-lo-mon] Iesus [ˈje-sus] Ioannes [jo-ˈan-nes]
- If the name is Germanic or Celtic, masculine names ending in a consonant add us, feminine names a:
Bediverus Bedivere, Bedwyr Beovulfus Beowulf Ludovicus Ludwig, Louis, Luigi, Hludwig, etc. Valterius Walter, Walthari, Waltheri Varnerius Warner, Werner, Warinhari, Warinheri Guenivara Guinevere, Gwenhwyfar, Jennifer, etc. Vido* Guido, Guy, Wido, etc. Vilhelmus* William, Wilhelm, Guillermo, etc. Volfgangus Wolfgang Úlfilas Ulfilas, Wulfila
The desinences of Latin or Latinized proper names are elidable in Romániço for purposes of adding suffixes: Iacobus “Jacob”, Iacobisto “Jacobite”, Iacobus Iacóbido “Jacob Jacobson”.
One could, if one were so inclined, go a step further and completely Romanicize Latinizable names (including the names of places) by doing the following:
- Put them into the genitive case and mark non-penultimate stress. Then apply Romániço’s orthography and pronunciation: Change the endings -ae to -a, -i and -us to -o, -is and -ei to -e. Then change q to c; sce-, sci- to ce-, ci-, æ and œ to e; -nct- to -nt-; ph to f; ch [x] to c, except before e or i; consonantal y to j, vocalic y to i; double letters to single:
Georgio GEÓRGIVS (gen. GEÓRGIÍ) Laurentio LAVRENTIVS (gen. LAVRENTIÍ) Césare CAESAR (gen. CAESARIS) Cipione SCÍPIO (gen. SCIPIÓNIS) Filipo PHILIPPVS (gen. PHILIPPÍ) Julio IV́LIVS (gen. IV́LIÍ) Luca LV́CÁS (gen. LV́CAE) Sócrate SÓCRATÉS (gen. SÓCRATIS) Vénere VENVS (gen. VENERIS) Carthágine CARTHÁGO (gen. CARTHÁGINIS)
- If the name is a Hebrew one from the Bible, use the ancient Greek form, dropping the final s of masculine names. Add -e if the name ends in -el, -om or -on, -o if it ends in any other consonant, or nothing if it ends in a vowel. Orthography is Romanicized as above, except that ae is changed to [e] after [k], and the letter h, sometimes preserved in Latin (e.g., A(h)aron, Io(h)annes), is preserved in Romániço as well:
Rafaele Ραφαήλ (Rafaél) Michele Μῐχᾱήλ (Mikhaél) Mosé Μωσῆς (Mosés) Abrahamo Ἀβραάμ (Abraám) Davido Δαυίδ (Dauíd) Jácobo Ἰάκωβος (Íakobos) Jesú Ἰησοῦς (Iesóus) Johane Ἰωάννης (Ioánnes) Sara Σάρα (Sára) Salomone Σᾰλομών (Salomón)
- Rules for Celtic and Germanic names are the same as for Latin ones, except that masculine names ending in a consonant add o instead of us: Bedivero, Beovulfo, Ludovico, Vilhelmo, Vidone, etc.
However one renders names, they can all come in three forms: short, familiar diminutive, and affectionate diminutive. The first is produced by simple truncation, when possible; the second by adding -i to a short form; the third by adding -uci- to any form:
|Vilhelmus (or Vilhelmo)||William|
The names of countries, oceans, and international rivers and mountain ranges preserve their Latin (or Latinized) form, but conform to Romániço’s orthography and have, where necessary, been altered for the sake of regularity:
|Usona*||The United States|
|Mediteráneo||The Mediterranean Sea|
|Pacífico||The Pacific Ocean|
|Balcanos||The Balkan Mountains|
In English, the name of a country’s inhabitants is sometimes the basis for the name of the country and language (e.g., “England” and “English” from the ancient Ængle), sometimes the other way around (e.g. “Congolese” from “Congo”). In the latter case, the language might instead be derived from the ethnic group whose language it is (“Spanish” in the case of Mexico), or have its own name (“Swahili” in the case of Kenya).
While this is true in Romániço as well (Anglia “England”, is named after the ancient Anglos, Conganos “Congolese” after Congo), modern peoples are named not after the ethnic tribe from which they descended, but the country of which they are citizens. A person legally living in England, then, is an Angliano, whether that person is ethnically Angla or not; any citizen of Great Britain is a Britaniano, even though the ancient Britanos that gave Britain its name are no more.
A shorthand for the names of languages can be formed by adding -enso to the name of a country, for example Çhinenso “Chinese”, which might more specifically be Mandarinenso, Guandonghenso, or many others. Usonenso refers to American English. Cumbrienso, however, or “the language of Wales”, is not Welsh (Cumbrenso), but English; for that reason, it’s generally more accurate to name languages not after the country they’re spoken in, but the people who first spoke them (Anglenso “English”; Anglienso “English as spoken in England”).